forest comparison

forest comparison

invasive shrubs

The top photo shows a trail in the Hartley Wood in the spring before the overstory canopy has leaves. All of the green in this photo is invasive plant species. Where they are absent (front-right), a lot of direct sunlight reaches the forest floor. The lower picture shows how shady the understory is after the overstory canopy has leaves in mid-summer.  

IMAGE: Erynn Maynard-Bean/Penn State