fracking water -- 001

fracking water -- 001

water imbibition and evaporation

Sixty one minutes of imbibition and evaporation of a 154 microliter bead of tap water on a 2.3 gram chip of the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation. The drop disappeared in approximately 100 minutes.  The photograph labeled 0 min was taken about 10 seconds after the bead was dropped on the Marcellus chip. Counter-current imbibition is indicated by methane bubbles floating up into the water bead from the Marcellus chip, starting on the left side of the bead at time = 0 min.

IMAGE: Terry Engelder/Penn State