wild baby stress

wild baby stress

grouse eggs in nest

The effects of maternal stress on offspring have often been described as “maternal programming,” which assumes that the characteristics and instinctive behaviors of offspring are primarily under maternal control. The ruffed grouse chicks that hatch from these eggs -- sought by raccoons, coyotes, foxes and more -- have already been "prepared" by their mother's stress hormones to elude predators.

Image: Dennis Daulton