Shown in the upper left corner of this illustration is a chromosome -- a densely compressed package containing one long, continuous strand of DNA. The DNA is pervasively transcribed into RNA, but only a very small fraction of the RNA has the instructions (or codes) for making proteins. The green circles in this illustration represent places along the strand of DNA where transcription originates. New research led by B. Franklin Pugh of Penn State University shows that essentially all RNA, whether or not it codes for proteins, originates at the same types of locations along the strand of DNA. The findings eventually may help to pinpoint exactly where complex-disease traits reside, since the genetic origins of many diseases reside outside of the coding region of the genome.