Simulation of bean root systems showing how altered root growth angles lead to deep or shallow soil exploration
Aerenchyma is the botanical term for large air spaces in the root. Crop varieties that produce root aerenchyma have metabolically cheaper roots that are better able to explore the soil.
Bean plants growing in low fertility soil in Costa Rica: larger plants have shallow roots, smaller plants are a genetically related line with deeper roots.
Genetic diversity in Phaseolus beans.